Match Fixing Deutsch

Match Fixing Deutsch "match fixing" auf Deutsch

blackmagicrecords.nl | Übersetzungen für 'match fixing' im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für match fixing im Online-Wörterbuch blackmagicrecords.nl (​Deutschwörterbuch). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "match fixing" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'match fixing' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für match-fixing im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

Match Fixing Deutsch

Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für match-fixing im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für match fixing scandals im PONS Online-​Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'match fixing' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache.

West Germany attacked hard and scored after 10 minutes. Afterwards, the players then proceeded to just kick the ball around aimlessly for the remainder of the match.

Algerian supporters were so angered that they waved banknotes at the players, while a German fan burned his German flag in disgust.

As a result, FIFA changed its tournament scheduling for subsequent World Cups so that the final pair of matches in each group are played simultaneously.

Another example took place on the next-to-last weekend of the —93 Serie A season. Milan entered their match with Brescia needing only a point to secure the title ahead of crosstown rivals Inter , while Brescia believed a point would be enough for them to avoid relegation.

In a retrospective on the "dodgiest games" in football history, two British journalists said about the match, "For over 80 minutes, the two teams engaged in a shameful game of cat-and-mouse, in which the cat appeared to have fallen asleep and the mouse was on tranquilisers.

The 1—1 draw gave Milan their title, but in the end did not help Brescia; other results went against them and they suffered the drop.

In knockout competitions where the rules require drawn matches to be replayed , teams have sometimes been accused of intentionally playing one or more draws so as to ensure a replay s.

In this case, the motive is usually financial since the ensuing replay s would typically be expected to generate additional revenue for the participating teams.

One notorious example of this particular type of alleged fix was the Scottish Cup Final , which sparked a riot after being played twice to a draw.

In addition to the aforementioned incidents of alleged fixing of drawn matches to ensure replays, mutual fixes have sometimes been alleged in "best of X" knockout series where draws are either not possible or very uncommon.

Early versions of baseball's World Series were a common target of such allegations. Because the players received a percentage of the gate receipts for postseason games a privilege they did not enjoy in the regular season , there was a perception that the players had an incentive to fix an equal number of early games in favor of each team so as to ensure the series would run the maximum number of games or very close thereto.

Partly as an effort to avoid this sort of controversy, early World Series sometimes saw all scheduled games played even if the Series winner was already determined.

That did not prove satisfactory since few fans were willing to pay to watch lame duck contests. Eventually, following the controversy at the conclusion of the season in which the New York Giants boycotted the World Series in part because of dissatisfaction with the financial arrangements surrounding the Series, Major League Baseball agreed to a number of reforms proposed by Giants owner John T.

Among other things, the so-called "Brush Rules" stipulated that the players would only receive a share of ticket revenue from the first four games, thus eliminating any financial incentive for the players to deliberately prolong the World Series.

On several occasions, "creative" use of tie-breaking rules have allegedly led teams to play less than their best. An example occurred in the European Football Championship.

Unlike FIFA , UEFA takes the result of the game between the two tied teams or in a three-way tie, the overall records of the games played with the teams in question only into consideration before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points, a situation arose in Group C where Sweden and Denmark played to a 2—2 draw, which was a sufficiently high scoreline to eliminate Italy which had lower-scoring draws with the Swedes and Danes regardless of Italy's result with already-eliminated Bulgaria.

Although Italy beat Bulgaria by only one goal to finish level with Sweden and Denmark on five points and would hypothetically have been eliminated using the FIFA tie-breaker too, some Italian fans bitterly contended that the FIFA tie-breaker would have motivated their team to play harder and deterred their Scandinavian rivals from, in their view, at the very least half-heartedly playing out the match after the score became 2—2.

The same situation happened to Italy in , leading to many pre-game complaints from Italy, who many commentators suggested were right to be concerned because of their own extensive experience in this area.

The FIFA tie-breaker, or any goal-differential scheme, can cause problems, too. There have been incidents especially in basketball where players on a favored team have won the game but deliberately ensured the quoted point spread was not covered see point shaving.

Conversely, there are cases where a team not only lost which might be honest but lost by some large amount, perhaps to ensure a point spread was covered, or to grant some non-gambling related favor to the victor.

Argentina needed a four-goal victory to advance over Brazil, an enormous margin at this level of competition, especially since Argentina had a weak offense 6 goals in 5 games and Peru a stout defence 6 goals allowed in 5 games.

Yet somehow, Argentina won 6—0. Much was made over political collusion, [27] that the Peruvian goalkeeper was born in Argentina, and that Peru was dependent on Argentinian grain shipments, but nothing was ever proven.

Proponents of the UEFA tie-breaker argue that it reduces the value of blow-outs , whether these be the result of a much stronger team running up the score or an already-eliminated side allowing an unusually large number of goals.

Perhaps the most infamous incident occurred in December when Spain , needing to win by eleven goals to qualify for the Euro ahead of the Netherlands , defeated Malta by a score of 12—1 on the strength of nine second half goals.

Especially in international football , such lopsided results are seen as unsavoury, even if they are honest. If anything, these incidents serves as evidence that the FIFA tie-breaker can cause incentives to perpetrate a fix in some circumstances, the UEFA tie-breaker in others.

Tie-breaking rules played the central role in one of cricket 's more notorious matches. Going into that match, Somerset led their group with three wins from three matches, but would end in a three-way tie for the top spot if they lost to Worcestershire and Glamorgan defeated the then-winless Minor Counties South.

In that event, the tie-breaker would be bowling strike rate. The Somerset players calculated that a large enough loss could see them miss the quarter-finals.

Accordingly, Somerset captain Brian Rose determined that if Somerset batted first and declared their innings closed after one over, they would protect their strike rate advantage, assuring advancement to the quarter-finals.

When Somerset won the toss, Rose implemented the plan, batting in the first partnership and declaring at the close of the first over after Somerset scored only one run on a no-ball.

Worcestershire won during their second over. Rose's strategy, although not against the letter of the rules, was condemned by media and cricket officials, and the Test and County Cricket Board predecessor to the current England and Wales Cricket Board voted to expel Somerset from that season's competition.

A player can concede with the understanding that the opponent will share the prize equally with him or her. Depending on the game, this can lead to disqualification.

On occasion, teams tank games as a protest against actions in earlier games. The most lopsided professional football match in history, AS Adema —0 SO l'Emyrne , was a result of SO l'Emyrne intentionally losing the game in protest against the referee's action in a previous game.

Bookmakers in the early 21st century accept bets on a far wider range of sports-related propositions than ever before.

Fixing the result of a more particular proposition might be seen as less likely to be noticed. For example, disgraced former National Basketball Association referee Tim Donaghy has been alleged to have perpetrated some of his fixes by calling games in such a manner as to ensure more points than expected were scored by both teams, thus affecting " over-under " bets on the games whilst also ensuring that Donaghy at least did not look to be outright biased.

Also, bets are increasingly being taken on individual performances in team sporting events, which in turn has seen the rise of a phenomenon known as spot fixing , although it is currently unlikely that enough is bet on an average player to allow someone to place a substantial wager on them without being noticed.

One such attempt was described by retired footballer Matthew Le Tissier , who in admitted that while he was playing with Southampton FC back in he tried and failed to kick the ball out of play right after the kick-off of a Premier League match against Wimbledon FC so that a group of associates would collect on a wager made on an early throw-in.

Similarly, in , Pakistani cricket players were accused of committing specific no-ball penalties for the benefit of gamblers.

Following investigations by the News of the World and Scotland Yard, on 1 November , Majeed, Pakistan's captain, Salman Butt , Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir were found guilty of conspiracy to cheat at gambling and to accept corrupt payments.

Whenever any serious motivation for teams to manipulate results becomes apparent to the general public, there can be a corresponding effect on betting markets as honest gamblers speculate in good faith as to the chance such a fix might be attempted.

Some bettors might choose to avoid wagering on such a fixture while others will be motivated to wager on it, or alter the bet they would otherwise place.

Such actions will invariably affect odds and point spreads even if there is no contact whatsoever between teams and the relevant gambling interests.

The rise of betting exchanges has allowed such speculation to play out in real time. Since gambling pre-dates recorded history it comes as little surprise that evidence of match fixing is found throughout recorded history.

The ancient Olympic Games were almost constantly dealing with allegations of athletes accepting bribes to lose a competition [34] and city-states which often tried to manipulate the outcome with large amounts of money.

These activities went on despite the oath each athlete took to protect the integrity of the events and the severe punishment sometimes inflicted on those who were caught.

Chariot racing was also dogged by race fixing throughout its history. By the end of the 19th century gambling was illegal in most jurisdictions, but that did not stop its widespread practice.

Boxing soon became rife with fighters "taking a dive", likely due to boxing being a sport involving individual competitors, which makes its matches much easier to fix without getting caught.

Baseball also became plagued by match fixing despite efforts by the National League to stop gambling at its games. In an effort to restore confidence, Major League Baseball established the office of the Commissioner of Baseball , and one of Kenesaw Mountain Landis 's first acts was to ban all involved players for life.

MLB Rule 21 prohibits players from participating in any form of betting on baseball games, and a lifetime ban on betting on a player's own games.

A poster with Rule 21 must be posted on all professional baseball clubhouses. It is believed that the word Yaocho came from the name "Chobei" of the owner of a vegetable stand yaoya during the Meiji period.

Created from the first syllable of Yaoya and chobei , the word yaocho was created for a nickname of Chobei. Chobei had a friend called "Isenoumi Godayu" 7th Isenoumi stablemaster with whom he played the game Igo , who had once been a sumo wrestler "Kashiwado Sogoro" former shikona : "Kyonosato" and now was a " toshiyori " a stablemaster of sumo.

Although Chobei was a better Igo player than Isenoumi, he sometimes lost games on purpose to please Isenoumi, so that Isenoumi would continue to buy merchandise from his shop.

Economists, using statistical analysis, have shown very strong evidence of bout fixing in sumo wrestling.

The sumo association appears to make a distinction between yaocho the payment of money to secure a result and koi-ni-yatta mukiryoku zumo the deliberate performance of underpowered sumo, whereby an opponent simply lays a match down without exchange of money.

The intricacies of Japanese culture, which include subordination of individual gain to the greater good, and knowing how to read a situation without the exchange of words i.

I know my opponent's score, he needs help and I should automatically give it to him , mean that the latter is almost readily accepted in the sumo world, and is also nigh-impossible to prove.

In professional wrestling , most matches have predetermined results; however, as it is an open secret that professional wrestling is staged, it is not considered match fixing.

Up until the s, professional wrestling was considered a legitimate sport. This did not endure as professional wrestling became identified with modern theatrics or admitted fakery , moving away from actual competition.

The "worked", known as " kayfabe " nature of wrestling led critics to deem it an illegitimate sport, particularly in comparison to boxing , amateur wrestling , and, more recently, mixed martial arts.

Many individuals began to doubt the legitimacy of wrestling after the retirement of Frank Gotch in Nevertheless, wrestling was still regulated by state athletic commissions in the United States well into the s, until Vince McMahon , owner of the World Wrestling Federation , convinced the state of New Jersey in that wrestling was considered a form of entertainment or sports entertainment , as McMahon used rather than as a legitimate sport, and that it should not be regulated by state athletic commissions.

Today, despite the staged aspects of wrestling, it is still seen as a legitimate sport in several countries, such as Canada , Japan , Mexico , and the United Kingdom , while it is seen as a form of entertainment in the United States similar to that of the Harlem Globetrotters.

Due to the lingering legitimacy issues that surrounded wrestling from the s until the s, gambling was generally not allowed on wrestling matches while it was still considered a legitimate sport.

Despite wrestling having openly acknowledged that the results are predetermined for years, since the late s gambling has increased on wrestling events, though the maximum bets are kept low due to the matches being predetermined.

In the s, the producers of several televised quiz shows in the United States were found to have engaged in match fixing, as part of an effort to boost viewer interest and ratings.

At the time, the majority of television programs were effectively controlled by their single sponsors, with broadcasters only providing studios and airtime.

The most infamous example of this strategy came when champion Herbert Stempel was to be replaced by Charles Van Doren —a Columbia University English teacher whom the producers felt would be more popular with viewers.

Among them, he incorrectly guessed that On the Waterfront was the winner of the Best Picture award at the 28th Academy Awards.

The correct answer was Marty , which was also one of Stempel's favorite films. Bielefeld were even relegated to the regional league. German football fans were shocked.

They turned their backs on the sport - until the national team redeemed it by winning the World Cup in Germany in Only then did the fans return to the stadiums in significant numbers.

Since then the German Football Association has introduced anti-corruption measures and an ethics code. And they removed a major incentive for match fixing: Before the Bundesliga scandal players could earn no more than 1.

That ceiling has long-since been removed. News and background stories from football and the rest of the world of sports, from Germany's international broadcaster.

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Want to learn more? Examples of match-fixing. There is no connection between private players in the gambling market and match - fixing.

From Europarl Parallel Corpus - English. Players are offered better protection against addiction, fraud, money laundering and match - fixing if they can play through major online gambling service providers, who always, by definition, operate across borders.

These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

Online gambling provides increased opportunities for corrupt practices, such as fraud, match - fixing and illegal betting cartels, as online games can be set up and dismantled very rapidly.

Eleven matches of the competition were annulled due to a match - fixing scandal and had to be replayed. From Wikipedia. His cricketing achievements were overshadowed by a 5-year ban for match - fixing.

He admitted that he had involved in a league match - fixing and accepted a bribe a year ago. The players received up to 40 thousand euros for the match - fixing.

Match Fixing Deutsch Player reactions became increasingly negative, claiming the format was confusing and could enable match - fixing. Pspc resolution also urges the European Commission to identify third countriesFifa 18 Icon Spieler especially those hosting " Asian betting havens " with a view to stepping up collaboration to combat organised crime linked to illegal betting and match-fixing. He admitted that he had involved in a league match - fixing and accepted a bribe a year ago. We are sorry for the inconvenience. As has become the custom in recent years Agrium Aktie, the tournament agenda featured educational briefings on doping controls and Head To Head dangers of match-fixing aimed at players who werein the mainenjoying their first international competition. Sprachausgabe: Hier kostenlos testen! German Veranken Beste Spielothek in Oelsa finden Versetzarbeiten abmachend haltbar machend verabredend vereinbarend. Darf ich Sie um ein Streichholz bitten? Constant vigilance is required in the battle against doping and match fixingMerkel commented. South Sky Kundenservice E Mail AdreГџe match-fixing scandal to be investigated. Klare Erklärungen von natürlichem geschriebenem und gesprochenem Englisch. Übersetzung für "match fixing" im Deutsch. Spielmanipulation abzielen würdenhat der Rat nicht ergriffen. Abbrechen Absenden. Television fraud: the history and Beste Spielothek in Paschwitz finden of Match Fixing Deutsch quiz show scandals. Prior toa team automatically received a priority pick if its win-loss record met pre-defined eligibility criteria. In the National Basketball Associationthere have also been allegations [ by whom? Vancouver, Kadir Padir Wiki Columbia — 7. NFL teams have been accused of tanking games to obtain a more favorable schedule the following season; this was especially true between andwhen a team finishing last in a five-team division would get to play four of its eight non-division matches the next season against other last-place teams. The most infamous example of this strategy came when champion Herbert Stempel was to be replaced by Beste Spielothek in Einsbach finden Van Doren —a Columbia University English teacher whom the producers felt would be more popular with viewers. Discovery News. As NHL drafts typically Trader-2020 only Vfb Esports NHL-ready prospect, if any at all, in any given year most others must continue developing in junior ice hockey or the minor leagues for several years before reaching the NHLthis rudimentary lottery has historically been enough of a deterrent to avoid deliberate tanking. Of course, when coaches elect to do this, Spiele Pirate Cave - Video Slots Online are not necessarily deliberately trying to lose. From Wikipedia. On occasion, teams tank games as a protest against actions Postbank Einzahlung earlier games. Eight years later, Dr. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für match fixing scandals im PONS Online-​Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung im Kontext von „match fixing“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: It is a modern form of match fixing - as if someone had taken fixation and​. Übersetzung im Kontext von „match-fixing“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: match fixing. Übersetzung für 'match fixing' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Players are offered better protection against addiction, fraud, money laundering and match-fixing if they can play through major online. Match Fixing Deutsch

Match Fixing Deutsch Video

Burka Avenger Vs Match Fixing (Cricket Episode w/ English subtitles)

Match Fixing Deutsch Übersetzungen und Beispiele

Etwa Teilnehmer aus 32 Ländern hatten sich zur Veranstaltung angemeldet, um Erfahrungen auszutauschen und potenzielle gemeinsame Strategien und Aktivitäten zu Themen wie Ticketing, Strafenkataloge, anstössiges Verhalten, Stehplätze und Spielmanipulation. The four clubs were accused of match-fixing in order to advance into the professional league. Griechisch Wörterbücher. Beispiele, die Manipulation von Sportergebnissen enthalten, ansehen 2 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Sehen Sie alle Beispiele von match-fixing. Vip Wien "equal" "marriage" Sport.

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The Australian Football League , the main competition of Australian rules football , has used a system of priority draft picks since , with poorly performing teams receiving extra selections at or near the start of the draft.

Prior to , a team automatically received a priority pick if its win-loss record met pre-defined eligibility criteria. However, that system led to accusations of tanking by several clubs—most notably by Melbourne in the club was found not guilty, but the head coach and general manager were found guilty on related charges.

Since , priority picks are awarded at the discretion of the AFL Commission , the governing body of both the AFL and the overall sport.

Until the —15 NHL season , the National Hockey League assured the last place team of at least the second position in its entry draft, with the first overall pick being subject to a draft lottery among the five worst teams.

As NHL drafts typically include only one NHL-ready prospect, if any at all, in any given year most others must continue developing in junior ice hockey or the minor leagues for several years before reaching the NHL , this rudimentary lottery has historically been enough of a deterrent to avoid deliberate tanking.

This was most prominent with the Buffalo Sabres , whose fans openly rooted against their team in the hopes they would clinch last place in the league for much of the season the Sabres themselves denied they were tanking and openly criticized their fans for suggesting the notion.

NFL teams have been accused of tanking games to obtain a more favorable schedule the following season; this was especially true between and , when a team finishing last in a five-team division would get to play four of its eight non-division matches the next season against other last-place teams.

In the current scheduling formula which has been in place since , only two games in a schedule are based on a team's placement the previous season.

Each team will play the same-placed teams based on the previous standings from two of the other divisions in its conference. The remaining eight non-division games are the same for all teams in a division.

Since , separate scandals have erupted in prominent sports leagues in Portugal, [21] Germany Bundesliga scandal , Brazil Brazilian football match-fixing scandal and the United States see Tim Donaghy scandal , all of which concerned referees who fixed matches for gamblers.

Many sports writers have speculated that in leagues with high player salaries, it is far more likely for a referee to become corrupt since their pay in such competitions is usually much less than that of the players.

Sharkey boxing match, promoted as the Heavyweight Championship of the World. In the eighth round of a fight dominated by Fitzsimmons, Sharkey suddenly went down, clutching his groin, yelling foul.

Referee Earp conferred with both corners for a few seconds before he disqualified Fitzsimmons for a foul that virtually no one saw. Eight years later, Dr.

Brookes Lee was arrested in Portland, Oregon. He had been accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons.

Lee said, "I fixed Sharkey up to look as if he had been fouled. Well, that is something I do not care to reveal, but I will assert that it was done—that is enough.

There is no doubt that Fitzsimmons was entitled to the decision and did not foul Sharkey. Match fixing does not necessarily involve deliberately losing a match.

Occasionally, teams have been accused of deliberately playing to a draw or a fixed score where this ensures some mutual benefit e.

One of the earliest examples of this sort of match fixing in the modern era occurred in when Stoke City and Burnley intentionally drew in that year's final "test match" so as to ensure they were both in the First Division the next season.

In response, the Football League expanded the divisions to 18 teams that year, thus permitting the intended victims of the fix Newcastle United and Blackburn Rovers to remain in the First Division.

The "test match" system was abandoned and replaced with automatic relegation. A West German victory by 1 or 2 goals would result in both teams advancing; any less and Germany was out; any more and Austria was out and replaced by Algeria , who had just beaten Chile.

West Germany attacked hard and scored after 10 minutes. Afterwards, the players then proceeded to just kick the ball around aimlessly for the remainder of the match.

Algerian supporters were so angered that they waved banknotes at the players, while a German fan burned his German flag in disgust. As a result, FIFA changed its tournament scheduling for subsequent World Cups so that the final pair of matches in each group are played simultaneously.

Another example took place on the next-to-last weekend of the —93 Serie A season. Milan entered their match with Brescia needing only a point to secure the title ahead of crosstown rivals Inter , while Brescia believed a point would be enough for them to avoid relegation.

In a retrospective on the "dodgiest games" in football history, two British journalists said about the match, "For over 80 minutes, the two teams engaged in a shameful game of cat-and-mouse, in which the cat appeared to have fallen asleep and the mouse was on tranquilisers.

The 1—1 draw gave Milan their title, but in the end did not help Brescia; other results went against them and they suffered the drop.

In knockout competitions where the rules require drawn matches to be replayed , teams have sometimes been accused of intentionally playing one or more draws so as to ensure a replay s.

In this case, the motive is usually financial since the ensuing replay s would typically be expected to generate additional revenue for the participating teams.

One notorious example of this particular type of alleged fix was the Scottish Cup Final , which sparked a riot after being played twice to a draw. In addition to the aforementioned incidents of alleged fixing of drawn matches to ensure replays, mutual fixes have sometimes been alleged in "best of X" knockout series where draws are either not possible or very uncommon.

Early versions of baseball's World Series were a common target of such allegations. Because the players received a percentage of the gate receipts for postseason games a privilege they did not enjoy in the regular season , there was a perception that the players had an incentive to fix an equal number of early games in favor of each team so as to ensure the series would run the maximum number of games or very close thereto.

Partly as an effort to avoid this sort of controversy, early World Series sometimes saw all scheduled games played even if the Series winner was already determined.

That did not prove satisfactory since few fans were willing to pay to watch lame duck contests. Eventually, following the controversy at the conclusion of the season in which the New York Giants boycotted the World Series in part because of dissatisfaction with the financial arrangements surrounding the Series, Major League Baseball agreed to a number of reforms proposed by Giants owner John T.

Among other things, the so-called "Brush Rules" stipulated that the players would only receive a share of ticket revenue from the first four games, thus eliminating any financial incentive for the players to deliberately prolong the World Series.

On several occasions, "creative" use of tie-breaking rules have allegedly led teams to play less than their best.

An example occurred in the European Football Championship. Unlike FIFA , UEFA takes the result of the game between the two tied teams or in a three-way tie, the overall records of the games played with the teams in question only into consideration before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points, a situation arose in Group C where Sweden and Denmark played to a 2—2 draw, which was a sufficiently high scoreline to eliminate Italy which had lower-scoring draws with the Swedes and Danes regardless of Italy's result with already-eliminated Bulgaria.

Although Italy beat Bulgaria by only one goal to finish level with Sweden and Denmark on five points and would hypothetically have been eliminated using the FIFA tie-breaker too, some Italian fans bitterly contended that the FIFA tie-breaker would have motivated their team to play harder and deterred their Scandinavian rivals from, in their view, at the very least half-heartedly playing out the match after the score became 2—2.

The same situation happened to Italy in , leading to many pre-game complaints from Italy, who many commentators suggested were right to be concerned because of their own extensive experience in this area.

The FIFA tie-breaker, or any goal-differential scheme, can cause problems, too. There have been incidents especially in basketball where players on a favored team have won the game but deliberately ensured the quoted point spread was not covered see point shaving.

Conversely, there are cases where a team not only lost which might be honest but lost by some large amount, perhaps to ensure a point spread was covered, or to grant some non-gambling related favor to the victor.

Argentina needed a four-goal victory to advance over Brazil, an enormous margin at this level of competition, especially since Argentina had a weak offense 6 goals in 5 games and Peru a stout defence 6 goals allowed in 5 games.

Yet somehow, Argentina won 6—0. Much was made over political collusion, [27] that the Peruvian goalkeeper was born in Argentina, and that Peru was dependent on Argentinian grain shipments, but nothing was ever proven.

Proponents of the UEFA tie-breaker argue that it reduces the value of blow-outs , whether these be the result of a much stronger team running up the score or an already-eliminated side allowing an unusually large number of goals.

Perhaps the most infamous incident occurred in December when Spain , needing to win by eleven goals to qualify for the Euro ahead of the Netherlands , defeated Malta by a score of 12—1 on the strength of nine second half goals.

Especially in international football , such lopsided results are seen as unsavoury, even if they are honest. If anything, these incidents serves as evidence that the FIFA tie-breaker can cause incentives to perpetrate a fix in some circumstances, the UEFA tie-breaker in others.

Tie-breaking rules played the central role in one of cricket 's more notorious matches. Going into that match, Somerset led their group with three wins from three matches, but would end in a three-way tie for the top spot if they lost to Worcestershire and Glamorgan defeated the then-winless Minor Counties South.

In that event, the tie-breaker would be bowling strike rate. The Somerset players calculated that a large enough loss could see them miss the quarter-finals.

Accordingly, Somerset captain Brian Rose determined that if Somerset batted first and declared their innings closed after one over, they would protect their strike rate advantage, assuring advancement to the quarter-finals.

When Somerset won the toss, Rose implemented the plan, batting in the first partnership and declaring at the close of the first over after Somerset scored only one run on a no-ball.

Worcestershire won during their second over. Rose's strategy, although not against the letter of the rules, was condemned by media and cricket officials, and the Test and County Cricket Board predecessor to the current England and Wales Cricket Board voted to expel Somerset from that season's competition.

A player can concede with the understanding that the opponent will share the prize equally with him or her. Depending on the game, this can lead to disqualification.

On occasion, teams tank games as a protest against actions in earlier games. The most lopsided professional football match in history, AS Adema —0 SO l'Emyrne , was a result of SO l'Emyrne intentionally losing the game in protest against the referee's action in a previous game.

Bookmakers in the early 21st century accept bets on a far wider range of sports-related propositions than ever before.

Fixing the result of a more particular proposition might be seen as less likely to be noticed. For example, disgraced former National Basketball Association referee Tim Donaghy has been alleged to have perpetrated some of his fixes by calling games in such a manner as to ensure more points than expected were scored by both teams, thus affecting " over-under " bets on the games whilst also ensuring that Donaghy at least did not look to be outright biased.

Also, bets are increasingly being taken on individual performances in team sporting events, which in turn has seen the rise of a phenomenon known as spot fixing , although it is currently unlikely that enough is bet on an average player to allow someone to place a substantial wager on them without being noticed.

One such attempt was described by retired footballer Matthew Le Tissier , who in admitted that while he was playing with Southampton FC back in he tried and failed to kick the ball out of play right after the kick-off of a Premier League match against Wimbledon FC so that a group of associates would collect on a wager made on an early throw-in.

Similarly, in , Pakistani cricket players were accused of committing specific no-ball penalties for the benefit of gamblers. Following investigations by the News of the World and Scotland Yard, on 1 November , Majeed, Pakistan's captain, Salman Butt , Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir were found guilty of conspiracy to cheat at gambling and to accept corrupt payments.

Whenever any serious motivation for teams to manipulate results becomes apparent to the general public, there can be a corresponding effect on betting markets as honest gamblers speculate in good faith as to the chance such a fix might be attempted.

Some bettors might choose to avoid wagering on such a fixture while others will be motivated to wager on it, or alter the bet they would otherwise place.

Such actions will invariably affect odds and point spreads even if there is no contact whatsoever between teams and the relevant gambling interests.

The rise of betting exchanges has allowed such speculation to play out in real time. Since gambling pre-dates recorded history it comes as little surprise that evidence of match fixing is found throughout recorded history.

The ancient Olympic Games were almost constantly dealing with allegations of athletes accepting bribes to lose a competition [34] and city-states which often tried to manipulate the outcome with large amounts of money.

These activities went on despite the oath each athlete took to protect the integrity of the events and the severe punishment sometimes inflicted on those who were caught.

Chariot racing was also dogged by race fixing throughout its history. However, the independent panel investigating the match - fixing claims has stated that it can not deny his involvement based on the evidence.

He was dropped from the team after dissent and allegations of match - fixing. Player reactions became increasingly negative, claiming the format was confusing and could enable match - fixing.

He and several players of the team were arrested for alleged gambling and match - fixing scandals. Offences relating to gambling or match - fixing carry penalties of bans from 12 months to life, and unlimited fines.

The four clubs were accused of match - fixing in order to advance into the professional league. The club was then found guilty of match - fixing in the season.

See all examples of match-fixing. Translations of match-fixing in Chinese Traditional. Need a translator? Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of match-fixing?

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